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070186 VO Lecture (PM4) - Gender and the Foundation of the Turkish Republic (2017W)

Gender and the Foundation of the Turkish Republic

4.00 ECTS (2.00 SWS), SPL 7 - Geschichte


Language: English

Examination dates


Classes (iCal) - next class is marked with N

Two more class hours will have to be planned with the students to cover all the topics in the sylabus.

Wednesday 04.10. 11:30 - 13:00 Hörsaal 50 Hauptgebäude, 2.Stock, Stiege 8
Wednesday 11.10. 11:30 - 13:00 Hörsaal 50 Hauptgebäude, 2.Stock, Stiege 8
Wednesday 18.10. 11:30 - 13:00 Hörsaal 50 Hauptgebäude, 2.Stock, Stiege 8
Wednesday 25.10. 11:30 - 13:00 Hörsaal 50 Hauptgebäude, 2.Stock, Stiege 8
Wednesday 25.10. 13:15 - 14:45 Prominentenzimmer Tiefparterre Hauptgebäude Hof 4
Wednesday 08.11. 11:30 - 13:00 Hörsaal 50 Hauptgebäude, 2.Stock, Stiege 8
Wednesday 15.11. 11:30 - 13:00 Hörsaal 50 Hauptgebäude, 2.Stock, Stiege 8
Wednesday 15.11. 13:15 - 14:45 Hörsaal 16 Hauptgebäude, Hochparterre, Stiege 5
Wednesday 22.11. 11:30 - 13:00 Hörsaal 50 Hauptgebäude, 2.Stock, Stiege 8
Wednesday 29.11. 11:30 - 13:00 Hörsaal 50 Hauptgebäude, 2.Stock, Stiege 8
Wednesday 06.12. 11:30 - 13:00 Hörsaal 50 Hauptgebäude, 2.Stock, Stiege 8
Monday 11.12. 16:45 - 18:15 Hörsaal 29 Hauptgebäude, 1.Stock, Stiege 7
Wednesday 13.12. 11:30 - 13:00 Hörsaal 50 Hauptgebäude, 2.Stock, Stiege 8


Aims, contents and method of the course

This is a course targeted for graduate students in the area of social history or social sciences, especially for those students who are interested in intercultural studies. The course will be designed as lecture series of 12 weeks, an hour long lecture by the instructor, followed by a discussion of half an hour at each meeting. The aim is to discuss the issues of modernization, nationalism, nation-building and women’s rights in relation to each other, focusing on the case of the foundation of the Turkish Republic in 1923. The history of modernization movements in the Ottoman Empire and political developments in the Balkans as well as Middle Eastern societies in the process of dissolution of the Empire will be briefly set as background information to comprehend the historical heritage of the Republic and to enable the students to develop a comparative historical perspective. Modernization movements in the late Ottoman period (especially in the 2nd Constitutional period 1908-1918) and the gender ideologies included in the political ideologies of Ottoman and later Turkish nationalism and patriotism will be discussed within a framework of interrelated ideas such as motherland, nationhood, mobilization of men and women in the nation-building process both as soldiers and as functionaries of the nation-state and perhaps also as “equal citizens”. The history of the Ottoman women’s movement and the reforms about women’s rights after the culmination of the Republic, advocated by the founding father Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, will be discussed within such a framework of “national feminism”. The official ideology, namely Kemalism, the principles of which were defined by Mustafa Kemal as the founding principles of the Republic as well as the founding political party, Republican People’s Party, will be critically evaluated with its assets and liabilities for the type of political culture and gender regime established in early Republican Period till about 1950’s and also with some of its continuing effects in the later years. Apart from Kemalist feminism, which is basically engaged in the celebration and furthering of Kemalist reforms about women’s rights, the rise of a second-wave feminism in the midst of 1980s and a growing Islamicist women’s movement in connection to the Islamicist parties getting empowered from the 1990s onward and with the final success of Justice and Development Party in 2002 will also be included in the topics for discussion. That is, in the final sessions, the different veins of discourse within the current public discussions will be analyzed in relation to each other with the references to the offered gender regimes and with connection to the histories of modernization under construction by Islamicist and secular parties today.

Assessment and permitted materials

Written Exam: Short essay questions
A list of questions will be put in the moodle to guide the students for the preparation work for the exam.

Minimum requirements and assessment criteria

Students are expected to attend the classes regularly and participate in class discussions. Weekly assignments about the readings will be evaluated by the instructor and contribute to the final grade. Most of the readings will be shared on line by the instructor. There will be a final exam of short essay questions based on the Lecture notes, class discussions and assigned readings.

Examination topics

Reading list

Weekly schedule :
1st week: Introduction to the key concepts and conceptual discussions: “Nationed Gender and Gendered Nations”; Nation-building, modern nation-state and women’s rights
Recommended reading: Yuval-Davis, Nira. Gender & Nation, Sage Publications, 1997.
2nd week: Women and Islam
Kandiyoti, D. (ed.) Women, Islam and the State, Temple University Press, 1991.
3rd week: How to study history of Turkish Modernization?
Reference: Zürcher, Eric J. Turkey A Modern History, I.B. Tauris, 2007.
“Introduction: Periodization, Theory and Methodology”, pp.1-6.
Chapter 8: “The Second Constitutional Period 1908-18”, pp. 93-132.
Also read Lewis, Bernard. The Emergence of Modern Turkey, 2002, “Conclusions: The Turkish Revolution”, pp.480-487.
4th week: The rule of the Party of Union and Progress during The Balkan Wars and the First World War; the rise of ethnic nationalisms, increasing oppressiveness of the political regime
Göçek, Fatma Müge. “What is the meaning of the 1908 Young Turk Revolution? A critical Historical Assessment in 2008”, Siyasal Bilgiler Fakültesi Dergisi 38, 2008, 179-211.
Adak, Hülya. “Beyond the Catastrophic Divide: Walking with Halide Edib (The Turkish Jeannne d’Arc) Through the Ambigious Terrains of World War I”, Selbstzeugnis und Person: Transkulturelle Perspektiven, Claudia Ulbrich ets al. (eds.) Böhlau, 2012, pp. 357-379.
5th week: Modernization and Reform movements in the Late Ottoman Period and the Woman Question: Ottoman women’s movement
Recommended reading: Çakır, Serpil. - “Feminism and Feminist History-Writing in Turkey: The Discovery of Ottoman Feminism”, ed. Francisca de Haan, Maria Bucur, Krassimira Daskalova, Aspasia ( A Year Book) Berghahn Books , Volume 1, 2007, pp.61-83.
6th week: Histories of the War of Independence (1919-1923)
Comparative reading of Kemal Atatürk’s account (Nutuk, 1927) and Halide Edib Adıvar’s 2nd volume of Memoirs, The Turkish Ordeal, 1928.
Also see Adak, Hülya. “National myths and self-N(arr)ations: Mustafa Kemal’s Nutuk and Halide Edib’s Memoirs and The Turkish Ordeal”,The South Atlantic Quarterly, 102/2-3, Sibel Irzık and Güven Güzeldere (eds.), Duke University Press, January 2003, pp.509-528.
Durakbaşa, Ayşe. “Individuality and Collectivity: Ottoman and Turkish Autobiographical Writings from the Beginning of the 20th Century”, Plurality and Individuality Autobiographical Cultures in Europe, (ed.) Christa Haemmerle, Vienna,1994.
7th week: Kemalist Reforms: Secularization and Beyond
Women’s rights in the Republican Period
Mardin, Şerif. “Religion and Secularism in Turkey”, Ali Kazancıgil and E. Özbudun (eds.) Atatürk: Founder of a Modern State, London: C. Hirst and Co., 1981, 191-219.
Lewis, Bernard. The Emergence of Modern Turkey, 2002. Chapter on “Religion and Culture”
Deniz Kandiyoti, “Gendering the Modern: On Missing Dimensions in the Study of Turkish Modernity” in S. Bozdoğan and R. Kasaba, eds., Rethinking Modernity and National Identity in Turkey, Univ. of Washington Press, 1997.
Toktaş, Ş. & Cindoglu, D. “Modernization and Gender: a history of girls’ technical education in Turkey since 1927”, Women’s History Review 15(5), 737-749.
8th week: Critical evaluations against Kemalism and Kemalist feminism
Durakbaşa, Ayşe. “Kemalism as Identity Politics” in Zehra Arat, (ed.), Deconstructing Images of The Turkish Woman, MacMillan, 1998.
9th week: The Second Wave Feminism in Turkey in the 1980’s.
Tekeli, Ş., “The Rise and Change of the New Women’s Movement”, Emergence of the Feminist Movement in Turkey, London, Sage Publications, 1986, pp. 643-663.
Sirman, N., “Feminism in Turkey: A Short History”, New Perspectives on Turkey 1, 1989, pp. 1-34.
10 th week: Islamic revivalism in Turkey and the woman question
Göle, Nilufer. “Authoritarian Secularism and Islamic Participation: The Case of Turkey”, in Civil Society in the Middle East, ed. Richard Norton, V.2, 1996.
Göle, Nilufer. “Secularism and Islamism in Turkey: The Making of Elites and Co

Association in the course directory

PM4: Frauen- und Geschlechtergeschichte

Last modified: Mo 07.09.2020 15:30